Assessment AS Learning

What fresh insights and realizations have you acquired so far?

The general description of Assessment AS learning is to get students to collect information about their own learning. Students reflect  on their learning and make plans to improve it.

The fresh insights and realizations are:

**I should self-monitor, self-evaluate, and self-assess my own learning during and after learning process.

**I should think backward and forward and make plans to improving my learning strategies.

Assessment AS Learning gives the responsibility for learning to the students and encourages and demands deep learning on the part of the students. This approach emphasizes assessment as a process of metacognition for students. We, as students are the assessor of our own learning, we personally monitor and critically review what we are learning. Making judgment, adjustments, and even making major changes to what we have understand.

Functions of Assessment AS Learning:

**Helps students understand the standards expected of them.

**Develops students’ abilities to self-monitor, self-assess, self evaluate, and self correct.

**Enables students to develop their own learning plans.

Focuses of Assessment AS Learning:

**Students’ thinking about their learning and the strategies they use to improve their learning, e.g. students self-reflect on what part of their work needs to be improved.

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Assessment for learning

Have you ever imagined crafting assessment FOR learning purposes? How do you perceive the idea of activating transformative assessment on a national scale–daunting, unnerving, and threatening, or inspiring, positively challenging, and promising?

Assessment planning occurs on many levels. All teachers are involved in assessment planning at the classroom level, some teachers participate in planning at the school level, and some engage in the kind of planning at system or national levels. Yes, I myself ever imagined crafting assessment FOR learning purposes, and I perceive of activating transformative assessment on a national scale positively challenging. To make good AFL assessment plans, some insights can be drawn from Clarke (2001) and Gronlund (2006). These authors feel that good assessment should have clear picture of all target learning outcomes and the outcomes should be closely linked to the assessment procedures. In order for to craft positively challenging I would ensure that the learning objectives should reflect the learning needs of the students, and have a very clear right from the start of the planning stage. This is very critical because less well-defined plan can lead to poor assessment and in turn to ineffective teaching. The learning objectives can then be translated into some objectives workable for day-to-day teaching. The next consideration I should consider is the coverage of content to be assessed. Question to my self.. Are judgements made based on students’ understanding of the subject knowledge, or their competence in other aspects such as collaboration skills? But most importantly “How do I improve student learning?” Yes, I should pause to this question and think carefully and plan on how to interpret the information collected by the assessment strategies, and spot the areas which students will need to improve in. Then, I will think what kind of feedback I should give to students and make/adjust teaching plans based on the newly obtained information.

FUNCTIONs Of Assessment FOR Learning:

**Understands how students learn by monitoring their progress during learning process.

**Make instructional decisions using the information collected continuously.

**Helps improve student learning through giving quality feedback.

Focuses of Assessment FOR Learning:

**Students’ progress and learning needs in relation to the curricular outcome e.g. a quiz for analyzing students strength and weaknesses.

Module 3, assessment of learning

In reference to your collaborative exercise, how did you find your “experience” of having to go through the steps to generate an assessment? Which of the guide questions in the sequence was most difficult to address? Why?

Working collaboratively with other students like “TINA” as my partner has proved to be a powerful technique for improving not only comprehension but also skills in reading of low-achieving readers. We have decided to choose “Assessing Reading Skills for Grade 1 Pupils” as our topic because both of us have undergone this kind of assessment when we where in primary grade, for this we can easily reflect what we have learned before through collaboration “exchange ideas”. Our ideas were based on our own experienced during primary grade,  teaching experienced  on our kids and  for TINA  includes school kids as well as we both made a research through online. For me, the guide question which seems difficult to address was “How can I ensure quality in this assessment process?

Why am I   assessing? I would like to know if my grade 1 pupils have mastered   basic reading skills and see if they are now ready to read long sentences.
What am I   assessing? I am assessing their ability to pronounce correctly the   different short and long vowel sounds, the soft and hard th sounds, the ph   sounds, etc.
What   assessment method should I use? I will use flashcards that contain different words and ask   them to read each word correctly.
How can I   assure quality in this assessment process? I will mark each flashcard that was read correctly with a   star. I will ask the pupil top bring home flashcards that were mispronounced.   The parent may help the pupil read the words correctly for tomorrows re-test.I will have a tally of the words that were mispronounced   and check for a pattern. The majority of my students may probably share a   common misconception. (Let’s say, many cannot pronounce soft th properly.)
How can I   use the information from this assessment process? The stars marked in each flashcard will be tallied. The   total has a corresponding grade. The more stars, the higher the grade.

Why? Because Assessment OF learning needs to be very carefully constructed so that the information upon which decisions are made is of the highest quality.  According to my reference Rethinking Classroom Assessment with Purpose in mind, page 62 “Ensuring quality assessment for the READING SKILLS OF GRADE 1 PUPILS” I should have clear criteria; either the student perform the skill successfully or does not. And I need to provide adequate opportunities for the students to demonstrate the skills under various conditions and at various time”. Assessment OF learning is designed to be summative, and to produce defensible and accurate descriptions of students competence in relation to defined outcomes and of relation to other students assessment results. Certification of students’ proficiency should be based on a rigorous, reliable, valid and equitable process of assessment and evaluation.

Reliability – reliability in assessment of learning depends on how accurate, consistent, fair, and free from bias and distortion the assessment is:  These questions might help:

**Do I have enough information about the learning of this particular student to make a definitive statement?

**Was the information collected in a way that gives all students an equal chance to show their learning?

**Would another teacher arrive at the same conclusion?

**Would I make the same decision if I considered this information at another time or in another way?

Validity – because assessment of learning results in statements about students’ proficiency in wide areas of study, assessment of learning task must reflect the key knowledge, concepts, skills, and dispositions set out in the curriculum, and the  statements and inferences that emerge must be upheld by the evidence collected.

The focus of Assessment OF Learning is to for the students to apply the key concepts, knowledge, skills, and attitudes related to the curricular outcomes..e.g. end of secondary school exam.

Reliability & Validity and their relationship

    What is RELIABILITY?

Reliability is such a cherished commodity. We all want our cars, washing machine, and spouses to be reliable. The term reliability, indeed, reeks of solid goodness. It conjures up visions of a mother’s love.

In education,  it is very important the assessment to be reliable. In matters related to measurement, however, reliability has a very restricted meaning, if we encounter the term reliability in any assessment content, we should draw a mental equal sign between reliability and consistency, because reliability refers to the consistency with which a teach measures whatever it’s measuring. Reliability = Consistency

The standards for Educational and Psychological Testing, a joint publication of the American Educational Research Association, the American Psychological Association, and the National Council on Measurement in Education put it, “Reliability refers the degree of which test scores are free from errors of measurement”. In other words, the fewer the errors of measurement, the more consistently examinees’ scores will accurately reflect examinees’ actual status.

There are three varieties of Consistency in educational assessment

1. Stability – Consistency of results among different testing occasions. Similar result even if the tests were administered on different occasions. (e.g.. suppose Maria  gave her students a Mid-term exam on Tuesday, but later in the afternoon all tests papers were snatched, the next day after describing to her students how tests paper were purloined by a snatcher she ask her students to retake the mid-term exam. Because there have been no intervening events of significance, such as more instruction from Maria on the topics covered by the examination, Maria would expect her students’ Wednesday retake examination scores to be fairly similar on their Tuesday examination scores.) And that’s what the stability conception of test reliability refers to —consistency over time. If the Wednesday scores are not comparable to the Tuesday scores, then Maria’s mid-term exam would be judged to have no stability.

2. Alternate form – Consistency of results among two or more different forms of a test. It deals with the question whether two or more allegedly equivalent test forms are, in fact, equivalent.

3. Internal Consistency – Consistency in the way an assessment instrument’s items function. This really different creature than stability and alternate-form reliability. Internal consistency does not focus on the consistency of examinees’ scores on the test, Rather, internal consistency deals with the extent to which the items in the educational assessment instrument are functioning in a consistent manner.

What is Validity?

To illustrate: (e.g..if a mathematics teacher discovers early in the school year that her students know much more about mathematics than she had previously suspected, the teacher is apt to decide that the class will tackle more advanced topics than originally planned). Teachers   use the results of assessments to make decisions about students. Appropriate educational decisions depend on the accuracy of educational assessment, accurate assessment improve the quality of decisions whereas inaccurate assessments will do the opposite. That’s what validity is about . Validity = Accuracy.

Three varieties of Validity Evidence

Well, this should come as no surprise, as the reliability has three kinds of reliability evidence that can be used to help teachers decide how consistently a test is measuring what it’s measuring. Validity has also three varieties that psychometricians  provide that can help educators determine whether their score-based inferences are valid. All, by itself, the evidence assures the educators that score-based inferences is truly accurate. Here’s, brief description of the three kinds of evidence that will determine whether the inference one makes an educational procedure is valid.

1. Content Related – The extent to which an assessment procedure adequately represents the content of the assessment domain being sampled.

2. Criterion Related – The degree to which performance on an assessment procedure accurately predicts the examinee’s performance on an external criterion.

3. Construct Related – The extent to which empirical evidence confirms that an inferred construct exists and that a given assessment procedure is measuring the inferred construct accurately.

Relationship of Reliability and Validity

According to the Research Methods (KNOWLEDGE BASE) Reliability & Validity ( where I got these images below, Reliability and Validity are not separate ideas, instead they are related to each other.  http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/relandval.php

Here, according to my resources, we will think of the center of the target as the concept we are trying to measure. Imagine that, one shot at the target for each person. If we measure the concept perfectly for a person, we are hitting the center of the target. If don’t, we are missing the center. The more we off for that person, the further we are from the center.

Explanation:

Reliable, Not Valid – you are hitting the target consistently, but are missing the center of the target. That is, you are consistently and systematically measuring the wrong value for all respondents. This measure is reliable, but not valid (it’s consistent but wrong).

I think the best example here is the analogy of Robenille “Rain” Malit,  in her post “Well-aligned to the wrong objective”. Open Forum on Alignment.

“If I use the hunting birds situation as an analogy, it would be like the teacher telling you that the goal is to shoot as much birds as you can, give and show you instructions on how use your bow and arrow well, does practice sessions with you on moving targets. You are able to shoot a lot of birds. You tie them up, bring them home and excitedly show your Ma, “Look at all the birds I killed.” Then she retorts, “Oh dear, why did you bring all those dead birds for home? They’ll just ROT here. Go bury them outside.”

Valid, Not Reliable – hits that is randomly spread across the target. You seldom hit the center of the target but, on average, you are getting the right answer for the group (but not very well for individuals). In this case, you get a valid group estimate, but you are inconsistent. Clearly see that reliability is directly related to the variability of your measure.

Can I put like this? Out of 50 students, only one got the correct answer and the rest were wrong. In this case, the feedback was, only one student could understand your lesson and the rest couldn’t.

Neither Reliable Nor Valid – hits are spread across the target and you are consistently missing the center.

Assessment tools were wrong because no one got a correct answer.

Both Reliable and Valid – consistently hit the center of the target. Your measure is both reliable and valid.

Assessment tool perfectly aligned. (Learning Objectives, Assessment, Instructional strategies are well-aligned).

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My own understanding and example:

On Search and Cite; Define and Clarify

Why have examination?

Examination are still a substantial part of assessment. Schools has a committee as assessment which recommends to teachers that a certain percentage of the grade has to come from examinations. Well, I always ask myself…”Life does not operate in this way when I graduated and go out to work, I don’t have this kind of settings”. My thoughts during high school and college days!!!

Now, I realized, assessment is very important.  Assessment result tells us if we are ready to take another ride to the next level or we are ready to go out from school and work outside and apply what we have learned.

For this, I have no objection to an assessment. It’s a matter of means and ends. Teachers used means, assessment to make us as a student learn better at the end. Assessment still a substantial  part of the curriculum..

Yes, I have no objection but I am not really comfortable in all kinds of assessment. I don’t know why, but I feel nervous..uneasy when it comes to examination. . When it comes to actual setting I started to cram.  That feeling occurred before, ongoing process, waiting for the result of my examination.  I felt relieved after I knew the result, whatever the result  was. If I got a highest score I kept in mind to maintain it,  If passing, I will find ways and means to improve by putting more efforts to study and understand the lessons.

When it comes to change in motivation. Yes, I experienced but I view it in a positive way. I am a positive person. Through test result I can determine in which area I  am weak and it is my opportunity  to improve it.

Outside of non-academic arena I positively anticipate my performance in cooking will be assessed. My employers like eating. Chinese people are very conscious about health. It should always be less oil, less salt, the meat must have no fat. It is quite pressure to think and prepare, though I have experience. I  always anticipate some feedbacks when dinner time comes. How’s my cooking? Is the food fit to their taste? Oh, I’m going to face whatever feedbacks they give to me. FEEDBACK.. gives me direction. If it negative, it my opportunity to improve, and if it is positive I will treasure it. In cooking food, if they say “YUMMY” I will write down  all ingredients I used  and the procedure  which will serve as my future reference.

High score gives me pleasure especially if I put more efforts on studying.  Score determines what I know and how far I know the lesson.. For failing grade, of course no one like to be failed. If it happens on my case, I think I will face it positively.  Yes, I know when I was a secondary and college student some of my classmates got failed for some reasons. Others stopped from studying because of that failing grade they cannot accept. Another example was my cousin, we studied in  the same school. He failed in one of his subject.  The next semester he never show  his presence anymore in the school. He stopped schooling just because of that failing grade experience. And so sad to think that just because of bad experiences that some students have had with tests and examinations turn them away from learning in school.

Lastly, grades are very important. It serves how far I know. And which points of my abilities need improvements. Grades are the outcome of my learning performance.

I like being assessed by YOU!!! Thank you!

Posted

   COMMITMENT 

I commit myself to spend my free time and Sunday off to study and comply with all the requirements needed for this subject (EDS-113) and submit before the deadline, participate in the discussion board and blog, make a regular post for my e-journal and be a self-regulated learner.

Plagiarism is a serious offense. To avoid this, I will  try to understand my lessons and be able to express its meaning in my own words. But if necessary to quote someone else’s  ideas,I will make sure to give credit to the Authors.

   CITING SOURCES

     Important idea from one of the resources on plagiarism. According to Harvard Guide to using resources “taking credit from anyone else’s work is stealing, and it is unacceptable in all academic situation, whether you do it intentionally or by accident.” How to avoid this? According to Harvard Guide, we should be extra vigilant about keeping track of where we are getting information and ideas, give proper credit to the authors of the sources we use, and we should not forget to clearly label the document in our notes if we cut and paste from an electronic documents.

Reference:

President and Fellow of Harvard College (2013). Harvard Guide to using resources. What constitute plagiarism? A publication of the Harvard College Writing Program. Retrieved  Sept. 15, 2013, from http://isites.harvard.edu/ieb/icb.do?keyword=k70847&pageid=icb.page342054

DIFENITIONS

Hi groupmates, here’s my definitions.

Assessment –  is an interactive process and should consider the reader, the text, the techniques being used, the reading or writing task involved, and the context in which the reading or writing is performed. And assessment must also be dynamic, it should not  just measure what the student can do now; it should also predict the student’s potential for change.

Testing – Any systematic procedure for sampling behavior, skills, knowledge, etc.. A widespread understanding of a test is that it is a formal and systematic, usually paper-and-pencil procedure, in which a sample of an examinees performance is scored and subsequently judged using a standardized process.

Grading – is the process by which a teacher assesses student learning through classroom tests and assignments, the context in which good teachers establish that process, and the dialogue that surrounds grades and defines their meaning to various audiences. Grading marks the outcome of learning, and at the same time it sheds light on what students can do to proceed in the learning quest. It reflects students’ achievement. It provides a basis for understanding whether students have achieved the learning intentions, for comparing results and communicating results to relevant parties.

Measurement – Any procedures that allows us to attach numbers to characteristics of people, objects, etc..according to a set of rule. Is a quantitative description of particular characteristics of a class of people, objects, systems, or events.

Evaluation – assess evidence, understand criteria for judging the value of own and others’ work or ideas; judge the value of what they read, hear and do; have confidence in their judgment. Whether the goals are obtained, by means of testing, providing feedback and corrective instruction.

 

Set B: Types of assessment practices

 

**Diagnostic assessment –  is typically conducted by a team of professionals and might include assessment by the school psychologist, learning disabilities specialist, reading specialist, and other professionals. “If students fail to make progress despite careful teaching and placement in intervention programs, an in-depth diagnosis might be required.” 

**Summative/Formal Assessment

Summative assessment – is given at the end of a program to evaluate its effectiveness. Outcome assessment is summative. Outcome measures generally given at the end of the semester or year to indicate whether the goals of a program have been met.

Formal assessment – is ongoing assessment designed to provide teachers with data they can use to plan and instruction. Monitoring is an example of formative assessment.  Students’ progress is monitored monthly or even weekly to make sure they are making adequate progress. However, the progress of all students should be monitored three times a year to identify students who are falling behind and check the effectiveness of the classroom literacy program.

 **Informal/Formal Assessment

Informal  Assessment – generally do not have a set of standard directions, so there is a degree of flexibility in how they are given. They may be designed to assess almost any skill or area, and may be tailored for any population. Informal assessment are typically constructed by teachers. Their advantage is that they may not be constructed with sufficient care, and their reliability and validity may be unknown.

Formal Assessment – may be standardized. They are designed to be given according to standard set of circumstances. These tests have sets of directions, which to be followed exactly. They may also have time limits. The advantage of formal standardized assessment is that typically they have been constructed with care and tried out on hundreds or thousands of students.

**Validity/Reliability

Validity – means that a device measures what is says it measures, such as vocabulary, comprehension, rate of reading, attitude toward reading, and so forth. It also means that the device will provide information that will be useful in making an instructional decisions–deciding, for instance, whether students’ comprehension or word recognition is adequate or if a program is working (Farr & Carey, 1986).

Reliability – the consistency of an assessment device. It is the degree to which the device would yield similar results if given again to the same person or group.

**Norm-referenced/Criterion-referenced

Norm-referenced – the performance of students is compared to that a norming or sample group. The score indicates whether students’ performance is average, above average, or below average compared to the norm group.

Criterion-referenced – student performance is measured against a standard. A typical standard of performance on a criterion-referenced is 75 percent.

 

References:

Assessment for Learning (Hong Kong Teacher Education) by: Rita Berry

Teachers Guide to Classroom Research, forth edition, by: David Hopkins with the assistance of Elpida Ahtaridou

Assessing and Correcting (Reading & Writing Difficulties), forth edition, by: Thomas G. Gunning

( Yes by [T. Malou] Marilou Juachon – original submission Sunday, 15 September 2013, 02:08 PM)

 

 

 

My thoughts from EDS 103 to EDS 113

Thinking back my EDS 103 “Theories of Learning”. Theories of Learning are conceptual frameworks that describe how information is absorbed, processed, and retained during learning. Cognitive, emotional, and environmental influences, as well as prior experiences all play a part in how understanding is acquired and retained.

Now I realized why I need to enroll/study  EDS 103 (Theories of Learning ) first,  before  I can enroll/study EDS 113 (ASSESSMENT). Metacognition lessons in my last subject Theories of learning will help me  to become an autonomous learner, be able to be aware of what is required, and monitor and assess my own learning during learning process. Constructivism theory (Social Constructivism) will help me to understand how I learn, what I can do or cannot do, and make some deliberations and decisions on how to improve my learning, whom I come into contact will play a certain role in shaping my experiences.  And behaviorist theory will help me to check whether I have met the requirements.

WELCOME EDS – 113

My Final Entry EDS 103

My Subject “THEORIES OF LEARNING..EDS 103” Is very CHALLENGING..FANTASTIC ..&..AWESOME!!

20130802_092807

      It is very challenging for me because this is my first time enrolling in distance education and everything is new to me.I encountered many difficulties such as  setting up my blog and accessing to school web site, yet I overcome them through constant trial and error. But two things that I found hard to manage were the “TIME” and “TIREDINESS” because of the nature of my job as domestic helper. But these things didn’t stop me to learn,.

     It is fantastic because I learnt many things about ” Metacognition and Self-regulation – In order to succeed we should be self-regulated learners and we should use our metacognitive knowledge and skills.” “ My learning styles – I am more on Converging and Accomodating – I like to experiment with new ideas, to stimulate, and work with practical applications. Uses trial and error rather than thought and reflection what i usually do in learning new things.” “Motivation – My dream to become a full pledge teacher and be with my family forever after being away from them for so many years motivated me a lot to study.” Behavioral Theories of learning– the theorist  asserted that learners are more motivated to learn by the use of reinforcement (reward and punishment)”, “Social Theories of learning – emphasized that we can learn best through direct contact with peers or modeling”, “Cognitive theories – we can acquired knowledge through thought process (cognitive ability)”, “Contructivism – we acquired knowledge by our own selves through experience and social interaction by connecting our past learned knowledge/experience to present knowledge”, “Complex learning –  we are using our critical thinking skills to analize, reason, evaluate, make decision and solve problems.”

    My EDS 103 is my AWESOME subject i’ve ever had. Truly, all the knowledge I gained in this subject will remain in my mind and heart for me to transfer to my future students.

    Lastly, I would like to say thank you Teacher Malou for your understanding. I will treasure you in my mind and heart forever. I will assure that this blog of mine will follow me to evolve in terms of learning. GOD BLESS US ALWAYS!!

Complex learning

The Question Is What Is the Question?

The Question Is What Is the Question? (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Reflect on your learning habits and strategies. In what ways might you have been either nurturing or neglecting your own complex thinking processes?

By reflecting my learning habits strategies, I could say that I often failed to nurture my own complex thinking processes. I do accept the fact that I really feel difficult this First Semester, everything is new for me.   But I will not give up,  I will try my best to slowly put myself in a right tract of learning. Reading posts, blogs, comments of my classmates on online learning will help me  to at least develop my own complex thinking process. But above all reading different theories from different theorist will help me a lot to understand the proper way of learning.

What strategies are you currently using to promote critical thinking among students (peers/siblings, if not yet a teacher) Are your current teaching methods effectively meeting/approaching critical thinking goals? How do you know that your students are utilizing critical thinking strategies?

My current strategies I used to promote critical thinking to my son (I’ve never been a teacher yet) is asking him many questions. Yes, I am away from him but I tried to teach him through chatting . Firstly, I will ask his lessons in all subjects, then I prepared many questions every subject he had. Let him answer all those questions with time limit. If he could answer all my questions within the specified time for at least 90 percent correct  that means he is utilizing critical thinking. And I could say my teaching methods effectively meet critical goals because my son successfully top the class for the grading period.